|no 23 2018
Parapura A. 2018. VARIETY OF SONG CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OMMON ROSEFINCH ERYTHRINA ERYTHRINAIN THE KOSTRZYŃ VALLEY IN 2015. Kulon 23: 1-11.
Kępa 38, PL-08-130 Kotuń, email@example.com.
repertoires of the Common Rosefinch were studied in the Natura 2000
“Kostrzyń Valley” area in 2015. Two different types of songs were
recorded and analysed: short and long. Among them 69 different songs
were found. 2,304 analysed songs belonged to 63 males. They consisted
of 3-9 syllables and lasted for 0.66-2.26 seconds. Most of these songs
(81.6%) started with a syllable that was a straight line with
increasing frequency. During the recording of an individual male, the
changes in the type of song were noted. Local dialects were also
identified. The largest was recorded along 4.1 km transect in 14 males.
Goławski A., Goławska S. 2018. DIFFERENCES IN NEST SITE SELECTION IN WHITE-WINGED TERN CHLIDONIAS LEUCOPTERUS AND BLACK TERN CHLIDONIAS NIGER IN EAST-CENTRAL POLAND. Kulon 23: 13-21.
Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Natural Science,
this paper, we compared microhabitat preferences of two species of
terns: Black Tern Chlidonias niger (a non-expansive species) and
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus (an expansive species, new to
the region since 1997) on oxbow lakes in eastern Poland. The Black Tern
clearly preferred places situated closer to the wall of helophytes and
with a larger proportion of such vegetation than at the random sites.
While White-winged Tern preferred places situated far from the wall of
helophytes and with with deeper water. Probably, White-winged Tern
prefers places in the center of the patch of vegetation, because most
often there is a lower level of predation pressure. This strategy is
unreliable due to the weather, which is responsible for the majority of
losses in clutches.
Kot H. 2018. BREEDING BIRDS OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN SIEDLCE. Kulon 23: 23-86.
Zakład Planowania Przestrzennego i Badań Ekologicznych EKOS, ul. Traugutta 8, PL-08-110 Siedlce, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
1984-1985, a breeding bird survey with the cartographic method was
carried out on 4 sample sites (a total of 66.9 ha) in three types of
residential areas: old, central part of the town, panel building estate
and a district of detached homes in Siedlce. 26 breeding bird species
were recorded in total (from 10 to 22 on different sites), and the
community density ranged from 93 pairs/10 ha in the panel building
estate to 270 pairs/10 ha in the centre of the town (on average 165
pairs/10 ha). The most abundant were: House Sparrow Passer domesticus
(72.7 pairs/10 ha, 53.8% in the community), Western Jackdaw Corvus
monedula (16.4 and 12.2), Common Starling
Chmielewski S., Tabor J., Matyjasiak Ł. 2018. AVIFAUNA OF THE LAKE ZGORZAŁA IN WARSAW AFTER ITS RECLAMATION. Kulon 23: 87-97.
Sławomir Chmielewski, ul. Rynek 12, PL-05-640 Mogielnica, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. In 2012-2014 the Lake Zgorzała located in Ursynów District in Warsaw was reclaimed. This lake disappeared as it was filled up with debris and soil excavated during the development of settlements in Ursynów District. The natural coastline of the lake was restored and the lake was deepened. The construction works commenced with an increase of the maximum area of the lake from 3 ha to 12 ha. Since September 2012 to the middle of 2018, 117 bird species were observed. Out of this number, 50 species were considered breeding or probably breeding. In the group of breeding birds, 20 species represented wetland and waterbird species of Non-Passeriformes. In 2011, i.e., before the reclamation started, 46 species were recorded, which included 15 breeding and 7 probably breeding species. This means that after the reclamation of the lake, the number of all recorded taxa increased 2.5 times, and similar trend was observed in breeding species. The number of breeding wetland and waterbird species increased three times. The restoration of the dome of this reservoir created favourable conditions for migrating Non-Passeriformes. Their number increased from 6 to 23 species. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that the reclamation which involved the restoration of the previous dome of the lake and leaving the part of it for natural succession positively influenced the avifauna of this area.
Wojdan D. 2018. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE CISOWSKO-ORŁOWIŃSKIE FORESTS. Kulon 23: 99-111.
Jana Kochanowskiego, Instytut Biologii, Zakład Ochrony Przyrody i
Fizjologii Roślin, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, PL-25-406 Kielce.
Abstract. The research was conducted on the 10,406.87 ha Site of Community Importance Cisowsko-Orłowińskie Forests in 2015-2018. The study site included 3 hill ridges of the southern part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, along with adjacent areas. Our research concerned the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles and the existing threats to these animals in the Cisowsko-Orłowińskie Forests. As a result of the research we recorded 14 species of amphibians and 6 species of reptiles at 25 sites. The following species were found: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris, European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina, European common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus, common toad Bufo bufo, European green toad Bufotes viridis, European tree frog Hyla arborea, edible frog Pelophylax esculentus, pool frog Pelophylax lessonae, marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus, moor frog Rana arvalis and common frog Rana temporaria. Reptiles were represented by the sand lizard Lacerta agilis, viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara, slow worm Anguis fragilis, grass snake Natrix natrix, smooth snake Coronella austriaca and common European adder Vipera berus. The main threats to the Site of Community Importance are posed by overgrowing and drying of small water reservoirs, which are breeding places of amphibians. The other threats include deadly collisions of migrating batrachofauna with cars, grassland fires and pollution of surface waters.
Wojdan D. 2018. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE SUCHEDNIÓW FORESTS. Kulon 23: 113-123.
Jana Kochanowskiego, Instytut Biologii, Zakład Ochrony Przyrody i
Fizjologii Roślin, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, PL-25-406 Kielce.
observations were carried out in the area of the Site of Community
Importance Suchedniów Forests (total area – 19,120.9 ha) in the years
2016-2018. The Site of Community Importance was established in the
northern part of the Świętokrzyskie Province to protect the
north-western part of the Świętokrzyska Primeval Forest. The area is
characterized by a high environmental and geological diversity. Mild
hills are usually overgrown with forests. The research included
inventory of amphibians and reptiles, and identification of threats,
along with determining necessary protection measures. As a result of
the research we recorded 12 species of amphibians and 5 species of
reptiles at 23 sites. The following species were found: alpine newt
Ichthyosaura alpestris, smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris, great crested
newt Triturus cristatus, European common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus,
common toad Bufo bufo, European green toad Bufotes viridis, European
tree frog Hyla arborea, edible frog Pelophylax esculentus, pool frog
Pelophylax lessonae, marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus, moor frog Rana
arvalis, common frog Rana temporaria, sand lizard Lacerta agilis,
viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara, slow worm Anguis fragilis, grass
snake Natrix natrix and common European adder Vipera berus. The main
threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are: drying out of
water bodies, water pollution, human presence and road traffic.
Strużyński W., Maciaszek R. 2018. OCCURRENCE OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS BRANCHIOBDELLA (ANNELIDA: CLITELLATA) ON THE NOBLE CRAYFISH ASTACUS ASTACUS LINNAEUS, 1758 FROM THE MOGIELANKA RIVER. Kulon 23: 125-129.
Witold Strużyński: Zakład Zoologii, Katedra Biologii Środowiska Zwierząt SGGW w Warszawie, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The study concerns the occurrence of the specimens representing the genus Branchiobdella on the noble crayfish Astacus astacus from the Mogielanka River (Central Poland). A total of 25 individuals of the noble crayfish were collected on 10-12 September 2016. Branchiobdellians found on the external body parts of these crustaceans were collected alive. Microscopic analyses indicated the presence of 675 individuals representing 4 species of the genus Branchiobdella: B. hexadonta, B. italic, B. parasita and B. pentodonta.
Kalinowski Ł., Stępień T., Ceryngier P, Romanowski J. 2018. OVERWINTERING OF LADYBIRD BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE) IN CITY PARKS IN WARSAW. Kulon 23: 131-134.
Kalinowski, Wydział Biologii i Nauk o Środowisku UKSW, ul. Wóycickiego
1/3, PL-01-938 Warszawa, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. Species composition and density of ladybird beetles overwintering in two city parks in Warsaw (central Poland) were investigated. Altogether, 186 samples of litter were collected in Park Skaryszewski (88 samples) and Pole Mokotowskie (98 samples) between 16 November 2017 and 10 March 2018. In total, 38 individuals representing 11 species of ladybird beetles were recorded. All species overwintering in litter were previously noted during the surveys of the ladybird diversity in two city parks in the growing season. The densities of overwintering ladybird beetles in city parks (1.8 ind./m2 in Park Skaryszewski, 1.3 ind./m2 in Pole Mokotowskie) were lower than those in the suburban zone of Warsaw.
Strużyński W., Maciaszek R. 2018. NEW RECORD OF THE TUBENOSE GOBY PROTERORHINUS MARMORATUS (PALLAS, 1814) IN THE VISTULA RIVER NEAR GÓRA KALWARIA. Kulon 23: 135-136.
Strużyński, Wydział Nauk o Zwierzętach, Zakład Zoologii SGGW, ul.
Ciszewskiego 8, PL-02-787 Warszawa, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. 16 individuals of the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus were captured in the Vistula River near Góra Kalwaria (52O01,100’ N; 21O13,351’ E) on 19 September 2017 and 19-20 July 2018. These observations document the expansion of the species in the central part of Poland, and the records of new sites in the Vistula and Bug basins are only a matter of time.
Murawski M. 2018. FIRST RECORD OF THE GREEN-WINGED TEAL ANAS CAROLINENSIS ON THE MAZOVIAN LOWLAND. Kulon 23: 137-139.
06-400 Ciechanów, ul. Armii Krajowej 18/22, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. On 2 April 2017 I recorded a male Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis during the observations on the wetlands of the Omulew River near Oborczyska (municipality of Baranowo, Mazowieckie voivodeship). I observed the same individual at the same site on 9 April, and again on 21 April also in the Omulew valley, but several kilometres farther in Długie (municipality of Czarnia, Mazowieckie voivodeship). It was the first record of this species on the Mazovian Lowland, and the fifth for Poland. The observation was verified and accepted by the Polish Avifaunistic Commission.
Olszewski A. 2018. FIRST RECORD OF THE HOMEYER’S GREY SHRIKE LANIUS EXCUBITOR HOMEYERI ON THE MAZOVIAN LOWLAND. Kulon 23: 134-141.
Kampinoski Park Narodowy, ul. Tetmajera 38, PL-05-080 Izabelin, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
On 11 November 2006 an adult individual of the Homeyer’s Grey Shrike
Lanius excubitor homeyeri was captured in ornithological mist nets in
the Kampinos National Park (52O19’9.5’’ N 20O31’22.4’’ E). This record
was verified and accepted by the Polish Avifaunistic Commission as the
ninth record for Poland and first on the Mazovian Lowland.
Malczyk P. 2018. THIRD RECORD OF THE URAL OWL STRIX URALENSIS IN THE MAZOVIA. Kulon 23: 141-144.
Abstract. On 31 May 2018 an individual of the Ural Owl Strix uralensis was found dead, probably killed by a car, in Sękocin Nowy (52.117622 N, 20.886307 E). It was the third record of this species in Mazovia.
Węgrzynowicz A. 2018. OCCURRENCE OF WETLAND BIRDS ON EPHEMERAL RESERVOIR NEAR ZAKROCZYM (MAZOVIAN LOWLAND. Kulon 23: 144-149.
ul. Brygady Pościgowej 6/17, PL-03-984 Warszawa, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. In 2011 and 2012, 48 species of wetland birds were recorded on small (about 6.5 ha), ephemeral reservoir localized in the agricultural landscape in the Mazovian Lowland. 6 species were found nesting in the study area, including few pairs of the Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius and Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula. In spring, further 32 species were recorded and during post-breeding movements and autumn passage 34 species were observed. The study area was particularly important for migrant waders. Among them, some uncommon species were observed, for example: Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres, Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus and Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius. The results suggest that wetlands in the agricultural landscape may play an important role for wetland birds, especially waders, when their common, feeding habitats (such as shores and shoals at rivers and water bodies) are flooded.
Stolarz P., Stolarz J., Lesiński G.2018. DIET OF THE LONG-EARED OWL ASIO OTUS AT THE WINTERING SITE IN SIEDLCE. Kulon 23: 150-153.
Stolarz, Joanna Stolarz: Centrum Ekologii Człowieka, ul. Kościuszki 24,
PL-05-075 Warszawa-Wesoła, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
Abstract. We studied the diet of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus based on the analysis of owl pellets collected at the wintering site in Siedlce (town in the eastern Poland) near Siedleckie Fishponds nature reserve. 1738 individuals representing 11 species of mammals and 6 species of birds were identified. The dominant prey were the common vole Microtus arvalis (59.1%), root vole M. oeconomus (12.1%) and harvest mouse Micromys minutus (6.0%), while very rare prey were the pygmy shrew Sorex minutus and bicoloured shrew Crocidura leucodon.
Stolarz P., Janus K., Lesiński G., Maciejewska A. 2018. WINTER DIET OF THE LONG-EARED OWL ASIO OTUS IN THE ŁOWICZ PLAIN. Kulon 23: 154-157..
Przemysław Stolarz: Centrum Ekologii Człowieka, ul. Kościuszki 24, PL-05-075 Warszawa-Wesoła, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. The diet composition of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus was examined based on the analysis of owl pellets from two wintering sites in the Łowicz Plain: Bednary Kolonia and Głowno (central Poland). 1970 prey individuals of vertebrates which included 11 species of mammals were identified. The dominant prey were the common vole Microtus arvalis (43.3%), european pine vole M. subterraneus (6.3%), striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (5.2%) and harvest mouse Micromys minutus (5.0%). Very rare prey were the common shrew Sorex araneus and pygmy shrew S. minutus.
Turzański M. 2018. OBSERVATION OF INTENSIVE FEEDING OF THE ROOK CORVUS FRUGILEGUS ON THE SEEDS OF THE GARDEN SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND THE CALCULATION OF ITS SUMMER DAILY ENERGY BALANCE. Kulon 23: 158-162.
ul. Wincentego Witosa 10/5, PL36-200 Brzozów, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. On 12-14 August 2018, intensive feeding of rooks Corvus frugilegus was observed on the outskirts of Brzozów (SE Poland, 49°42’17.19”N, 22°01’35.98”E). Birds were pecking seeds from 21 plants of the garden sunflower Helianthus annuus. Every morning, between 7.50 and 9.00 a.m., several rooks were peeling sunflower seeds – during that time some birds left the site, while the others arrived there. After three days, the largest sunflower heads of a diameter of ≤30 cm were eaten up in about 15-35%, while the younger in about 5-10%. On 14 August in the evening, sunflower heads were covered with tights to protect the seeds from birds. After two days, i.e., on 16 August, rooks began to move and puncture the cover and take out - this time in small amounts - seeds from available parts of sunflower heads. Their feeding lasted until 24 August, when all sunflower heads were harvested. The summer energy balance of an adult Rook was calculated, and was equal to χ = 144 (109-192) kcal/day/individual. This corresponds to a daily intake of χ = 50 g (37.8-66.7) of sunflower seeds. In Poland as well as in other parts of the world, sunflower seeds were recorded in the diet of the Rook, yet in small amounts (low frequency), but during the whole year like in Hungary. The above observations confirm that sunflower seeds constituted only an insignificant and occasional food source for the Rook. The economic importance of this species should always be assessed in a complex way, and should also consider its significant and useful role in agrocenoses.
Matuszewski A., Wardecki Ł. 2018. NESTING OF THE MARSH TIT POECILE PALUSTRIS IN PIPE FENCE IN THE LOWER NAREW VALLEY. Kulon 23: 162-164.
Matuszewski, Wydział Nauk o Zwierzętach, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa
Wiejskiego w Warszawie, ul. Ciszewskiego 8, PL-02-786 Warszawa, e-mail:
13 May 2018 the nesting of the Marsh Tit Poecile palustris in pipe
fence was documented in Rogóźno, Mazovian district (52O47’16.0”N,
21O21’41.4”E), the Lower Narew Valley. It was the first documented
observation of that species breeding in urbanized area.
Cichocki J., Ważna A., Mierczak Z., Zwijacz-Kozica T. 2018. NEW SITES OF THE HAZEL DORMOUSE MUSCARDINUS AVELLANARIUS IN THE WESTERN TATRAS. Kulon 23: 165-168.
Cichocki, Agnieszka Ważna, Katedra Zoologii, Uniwersytet Zielonogórski,
Szafrana 1, PL-65–516 Zielona Góra e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. The monitoring of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius was carried out in 2014-2018. The monitored area (5 study plots) covered the Strążyska Valley (1 study plot), Spadowa Valley (1 study plot), Chochołowska Valley (2 study plots) and the Kościeliska Valley (1 study plot). Thirty monitoring boxes for the hazel dormouse were hung in each plot. From spring to autumn we regularly checked the boxes to find out if they were settled by the hazel dormouse. The study documented the presence of 4 to 8 nests and from 1 to 3 individuals of the hazel dormouse in four areas. The only unsettled area was localized in the Chochołowska Valley. The results of this monitoring showed that the hazel dormouse inhabited spruce forests located higher in the Kościeliska Valley and on the Huciska Glade in the Chochołowska Valley. The hazel dormouse settlements were also found in beech forests. These new sites of the hazel dormouse documented by our survey in the Western Tatras complement the knowledge of the natural occurrence of the species
Stolarz P., Stolarz E., Czarnecka B. NEW RECORDS OF THE EDIBLE DORMOUSE GLIS GLIS IN THE WESTERN ROZTOCZE. Kulon 23: 168-171.
Stolarz, Ewa Stolarz: Centrum Ekologii Człowieka, ul. Kościuszki 24,
PL-05-075 Warszawa-Wesoła, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
Abstract. On 14 October 2018 the remnants of 8 individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis were found in pellets of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco in Wierzchowiska village near Modliborzyce (Lublin district) in the Western Roztocze region (UTM EB92). On 20 October 2018 traces of foraging of the edible dormouse were found in beech forests near Węgliska (UTM FB02) and Błażek (UTM FB03). These are the first unambiguous records of this mammal in the Western Roztocze.
Lesiński G., Jobda M. 2018. MAMMALS IN THE DIET OF THE TAWNY OWL STRIX ALUCO IN WOLA ZADYBSKA (SOUTH-EAST MAZOVIA). Kulon 23: 172-175.
Lesiński, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, Wydział
Nauk o Zwierzętach, Zakład Zoologii, ul. Ciszewskiego 8, PL-02-787
Warszawa, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. The study on mammals in diet composition of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco was conducted in Wola Zadybska (SE Mazovia) in 2009-2018. Within 623 vertebrate prey items there were 551 mammals – 88.4% (remaining prey: birds – 31 and amphibians – 41). Rodents clearly dominated mammalian prey (near 95%), and among them Myodes glareolus, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus arvalis and Apodemus flavicollis were most abundant. It is worth noting that the locality of Crocidura leucodon was on the border of its range in Poland. Mammal community in Wola Zadybska is typical for the Mazovian agricultural landscapes with a mosaic of habitats (villages, arable fields and small forests).
Redlisiak M., Wardecki Ł., Karpińska O., Hayatli F., Grzębkowski M., Kajzer K. 2018. REPORT ON THE PROJECT OF RINGING OF THE MALLARD ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS IN THE WARSAW METROPOLITAN AREA IN 2015-2018. Kulon 23: 177-186.
Redlisiak, Stacja Badania Wędrówek Ptaków, Wydział Biologii,
Uniwersytet Gdański, ul. Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80-308 Gdańsk, e-mail:
Abstract. In December 2015 the members of Warsaw Ringing Group TRIDACTYLUS have started the project of ringing of the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos within the boundaries of the Warsaw metropolitan area. The aim of the project was to study wintering, moult and breeding site fidelity of urban mallards and also the origin of birds wintering in the study area. Between December 2015 and February 2018, 1 471 individuals were ringed at 73 localities. In the same period, 7 710 recoveries of 892 ringed birds were obtained. About a half of reported individuals were observed only at the site of ringing. All the rest were, at least once, reported also from other sites within the study area. Immature individuals changed location more often than adults and males changed it more often than females. So far, only 7 individuals (all males) were reported outside the Warsaw metropolitan area. Four individuals were shot in Russia, one was shot in Belarus and one in NE Poland. One individual was observed alive at the fish ponds in Belarus. From birds reported (ringed or observed) in the winter season 2015/2016 in Warsaw approximately 50% was reported again in winter 2016/2017. From birds reported between April and June in Warsaw, 76% were later wintering in the city and in 24% there are no data about their wintering place. There were no reports of birds which after spending breeding period in Warsaw spent winter elsewhere. The number of data collected during our project is the first such large dataset from the Warsaw metropolitan area and one of the largest in Poland. The project will be continued and the collected data will be processed, analysed and published in more extensive form.
Łukaszewicz M., Rowiński P. 2018. REPORT ON WINTER BIRD MONITORING ON WATER BODIES OF THE MAZOVIAN LOWLAND IN JANUARY 2018. Kulon 23: 186-201.
Łukaszewicz, Mazowiecko-Świętokrzyskie Towarzystwo Ornitologiczne, ul.
Radomska 7, PL-26-670 Pionki, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The observations were carried out on 17 rivers of different size classes on 13-14 January; possible shift of dates was 13-21 January. The countings were conducted in towns – Warsaw, Radom and Skierniewice, on dam reservoirs – Zegrze and Domaniów and single water bodies and river transects shorter than the primary unit (<5 km). In total, 1,085 km of the river courses were controlled. A total of 109.5 thousands of individuals were recorded in two groups representing 111 species, including 72,923 individuals of 41 waterbird species. The most abundant was the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos – 74.7%, then the Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula (4.1%), Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (3.2%), Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (2.9%), Mute Swan Cygnus olor (2.6%) and the Goosander Mergus merganser (2.1%). The average density of wetland and waterbird species was equal to 370.3 indiv./10 km on the rivers in the western part of the region, in the eastern part it was 472.3 indiv./10 km, while the highest density reaching 854.7 indiv./10 km was recorded on the Vistula River. In the group of “terrestrial” birds 70 species were noted and their number reached 36 577 individuals. Dominant species included the Eurasian Siskin Spinus spinus (16.5%), Western Jackdaw Corvus monedula (13.2%), Rook Corvus frugilegus (10.8%), Fieldfare Turdus pilaris (9.3%), Great Tit Parus major (6.7%) and the Hooded Crow Corvus cornix (5.6%). The average density of all birds was equal to 337.1 indiv./10 km; on the rivers in the eastern part of the region and in the Vistula Valley it was similar: 258-294 indiv./10 km, while considerably higher density was recorded on the rivers in the western part – 468.8 indiv./10 km. Over 100 volunteers took part in this winter bird monitoring.